BEHS 343


Parenting Today


Study Guide

Martin & Colbert - Parenting: A Lifespan Perspective



101.     Describe the child-development position (one of) of the following people:  Jean Jacques Rousseau  John Locke


John Locke viewed children as “blank slates,” neither innately good nor innately evil.  He believed that children’s personalities were shaped through the child rearing efforts of parents and other aspects of the environment.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau emphasized the natural goodness of children and cautioned against harmful adult training.  Because he conceptualized childhood as a unique part of the lifespan, Rousseau advised parents to be “child centered.”


102.     What does the term “Developmental History” mean, and how does it apply to a parent?


Developmental history is a combination of traits and experiences the parent has had in life.  Because adults vary in their levels of maturity, energy, patience, intelligence and attitudes, their sensitivity and expectations of both themselves and their children will be effected.  A parent’s developmental history including his or her own childhood, influences child rearing behavior.


103.        Describe Baumrind’s “authoritative” parenting. Describe Baumrind’s “authoritarian” parenting. Describe Baumrind’s “permissive” parenting. (40-41)


Authoritative parents are nurturing and demanding.  The setting of clear standards that are developmentally reasonable and then enforcing them by setting limits.  Warmth, explanation, and affection are also part of the democratic approach.  Children tend to be socially competent, energetic, friendly, and curious.


Authoritarian parenting occurs when parents are high in control and low in warmth.  Children in this environment will tend to be moody, unhappy, fearful, withdrawn, un-spontaneous, and irritable.


Permissive parents generally are non-controlling and non-threatening.  (Low control, high warmth) They are nurturing, but avoid making demands on the child.  Too much freedom is developmentally inappropriate for young children.  This will encourage behavior that is impulsive and aggressive.




104.        List and describe 3 theories of child development. (27-35) (these theories could be on the test as “Briefly explain the concept behind FAMILY SYSTEM theory.”


Family System Theory suggests that the family is a system, or a complex whole in which no person can be seen independently.  Each member can be observed only in their relationships with other people within the system.  There are two characteristics that are particularly applicable to parenting within the family system.  Mutual influence, and adaptability.


Biological theories contend that children have inherited a number of attributes and behavioral predispositions that will have a profound effect on their development.  Ethology emphasizes biological factors and focuses on the broad picture of inherited attributes that we have in common and that make us alike.  Behavior genetics looks at unique combinations of genes that help to make individuals different from one another.  Examples of this approach include research on concepts such as intelligence and shyness.


Cognitive Theories study the processes of intellectual development, which also have implications for personal and social development.  Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory is based on the belief that thinking is an active process that people use to organize their perceptions of the world.  He believes that children are curious, active explorers who respond to the environment according to their understanding.  As the child learns more, they will adapt to the environment and their level of understanding.


Vygotsky’s Dialectical Theory states that cognitive development is socially mediated.  There are advances for children when there is cooperative communication between the child and a knowledgeable member of society.


Learning theories try to figure out the immediate causes and consequences of behavior.    This theory considers life as a continual learning process where new responses appear and old responses fade away.


Psychoanalytic theories originated with Freud were based on the observations of emotionally disturbed adults looking retrospectively at their childhood years.  Freud focused on psychosexual gratification.




105.     What occurs in the CRITICAL PERIOD of attachment? When does this critical period occur?


The infant becomes exceptionally attached to their primary caregiver.  This usually happens after month 2 of life.  During the first couple of months, infants respond to people in general, after that (critical period of attachment) the infant is able to distinguish between regular people and the primary caregiver and the infant tries to stay exceptionally close to the primary caregiver.




305.        What is ACCULTURATION? (47)


The process by which the culture of a particular society is instilled in a human from infancy onward.  The process of changing beliefs and behaviors as a result of being exposed to another culture.



306.        Briefly discuss two issues faced by people in INTERRACIAL ADOPTION. (50)


When a majority couple chooses to become a minority family by adoption, they are changing the race of the family for generations to come.  Some of the extended family members may not be supportive of this choice.  Parents may not even recognize the magnitude of their decision until they become grandparents.


When minority children enter school, it is more difficult for parents to protect them from prejudice outside the home.  Having a mismatch between the race of parents and child might be perceived negatively by school-aged peers.



307.        Describe 2 ways African-American families and/or parenting practices may differ from other cultural groups. (51-55)


Values and Beliefs

            African Americans place a high value on interpersonal relationships.    Daily life often centers on interactions with people, not objects, and both males and females are taught to express emotions.


Parenting Practices

            Affluent African American families tend to be restrictive and expect immediate obedience by the children.  However, with economically challenged families there is more of a tendency to be power assertive and arbitrary.



308.        Describe 2 ways Latino families and/or parenting practices may differ from other cultural groups. (55-58)


Values and Beliefs

            Latino’s have larger families and lower divorce rates.  In some families the parent-child relationship may be considered more important than the marital relationship, and parents may be expected to sacrifice the fulfillment of personal needs for their children.


Parenting Practices

            There seems to be a relaxed attitude among Latino parents with regard to their children’s attainment of developmental milestones.  Parents may indulge and placate young children, rather than pushing for independence.



309.        Describe 2 ways Asian-American families and/or parenting practices may differ from other cultural groups. (58-60)


Values and Beliefs

            The central values in many Asian cultures-family, harmony, education – are rooted in Confucian principles.  Virtues such as patience, perseverance, self-sacrifice, restraint, and humility are held in high regard.  Self-interest is subordinate to the good of the group.  When parents readily sacrifice their personal needs and wants in the interest of their children, they are showing concern for the most important group in their culture – the family.


Parenting Practices

            The care of Asian–American infants has been described by some professionals as indulgent and nurturing.  Babies are perceived as relatively helpless.  Observation of Asian-American families reveal that many mothers do gratify their needs immediately rather than imposing rigid feeding and sleeping schedules.  There is an emphasis on close physical contact between mother and infant, with the infant being carried or held much of the time.



310.        Describe 2 ways Native-American families and/or parenting practices may differ from other cultural groups. (60-62)


Values and Beliefs

            Many Native American tribes value harmony with nature and being part of a group.  The meaning attached to the surrounding land may make it difficult for an individual or family to relocate. Individual goals and autonomy are respected as long as they do not threaten the needs of the group.


Parenting Practices

            Native Americans respect the natural unfolding of human potential.  They tend to believe that children’s individuality is innate and that adults must enable children to become what they are destined to be.



311.     Discuss two issues faced by gay/lesbian parents. (62-66)


Because of homophobia and discrimination, some gay parents do not reveal their sexual identities.  They may fear that societal prejudices could cause them to lose custody or visitation rights.   Some parents believe that asking children to keep their family structure a secret gives the negative message that the parental relationship is wrong.


501.        Describe one benefit of having children before age 30. Describe one benefit of having children after age 30. (75-77)


Having a child before the age of thirty is beneficial in that there is significantly less incidence of age related genetic mutation of the child, and the parents will still be considered young when the children leave home, thus allowing them to actually enjoy an active “after children” life.


Waiting to have children till after the age of thirty allows the parents to establish themselves financially and educationally.  Since motherhood involves a substantial commitment of time and resources, having children at a younger age may have a negative impact on the goals and attainments of the mother.  Because they have more time for educational and career pursuits, financial stresses are often less of a problem for those who delay parenthood.


502.        List three first trimester signs of pregnancy. (77)


Cessation of menstrual cycle, nausea, and tiredness.


503.        What are TERATOGENS? Give an example. (79)


Teratogens are any drug, chemical, pollutant, infection, physical agent, or material physical state (e.g. diabetes) that can interfere with normal development during the prenatal period.    Nicotine and alcohol are the most common.


504.        List and describe two medical tests of fetal health. (82)


Sonogram – also known as ultrasound, uses high-frequency sound waves to outline the shape of the fetus, and allow for measurements of bones and other vital organs.


Amniocentesis is a procedure in which amniotic fluid is withdrawn through the abdominal wall with a syringe so that the fluid can be analyzed to detect some genetic abnormalities of the fetus.


505.        Describe 3 ways to improve health in pregnancy. (82-84)


Exercise, proper nutrition, and plenty of rest.


506.        List and describe 3 ways to deal with pain in childbirth. (86-90)


Mental focusing and mental control techniques, Anesthetics (drugs that deaden the sensation), and analgesics (drugs that that provide pain relief without causing a total loss of feeling).


507.        List and describe 2 postpartum emotional disorders. (91-92)


Postpartum blues – mild transient depression.  Episodes of anxiety, confusion, insomnia, restlessness and feelings of exhaustion.  Considered normal because of the shift in hormone levels.


Postpartum depression – a variety of mild to moderate depressive symptoms that arise within six months after child birth. Sadness, irritability, lethargy, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, and lessened sexual interest.


508.        Describe 3 problems/adjustments faced by new parents. (92-97)


Trouble balancing the multiple role demands (marriage, career, parenthood), learning how to cope with the new child (some are fussier than others), learning how to still take time to nurture themselves and the marriage (if one exists).


509.        What is FATHERHOOD CLICK? (99)


The term fatherhood click has been used to describe a parenting style in which fathers learn to actively nurture their children with hands-on fathering and attention. When certain basic skills are learned, fatherhood becomes a fully realized developmental experience and “clicks” into place.


510.        Describe 2 of the problems associated with infertility. (101-102)


When trying to find medical solutions to the problem, couples go through costly process that may involve an enormous loss of control and privacy.  The transition to non-parenthood, also known as involuntary childlessness is accompanied with grief, anger, guilt, and depression. 



522.        Briefly describe one of the SENSORY PREFERENCES of newborns. (113)


Infants like certain sounds better than others.  The sound of the human voice (especially that of their mother) is preferred. 


523.        List 3 reasons infants CRY. (115)


Crying is the infants major form of communication.  It can signal hunger, boredom, a wet diaper, being too hot or too cold, pain, loneliness, wanting something to suck, restlessness, being over tired, or being too full.



524.        Describe 3 ways to SOOTHE A CRYING BABY. (115)


Movement (vestibular stimulation), touch (tactile stimulation), and sound (auditory stimulation).


525.        Should parents always pick up or comfort a crying baby? Why or why not? (116)


Research suggests that parents that respond quickly to a baby’s crying by picking them up had children that  did less crying by the time they were a year old than babies that were not responded to quickly or not at all.


526.        What is COLIC? (116)

Colic is a catch all term for symptoms such as extreme fussiness, sustained periods of crying and abdominal discomfort.


527.        What is STRANGER ANXIETY? (118)


A stage of development that infants go through in which they portray a fear of people that they don’t know.


528.        List and describe 2 of Ainsworth’s patterns of ATTACHMENT. (118)


Anxious / ambivalent – where the child can’t decide when choosing playing with toys and being near their caregivers.


Anxious / avoidant – babies that are not upset when their caregiver leaves them with a stranger, but are quite upset when left alone.


529.        Describe 3 ways to cope with SEPARATION ANXIETY. (120)


Always say goodbye, help the child become familiar with new surroundings and people before actually being left with them, resist the temptation to bribe the child for controlling or hiding their distress.


530.        List 3 elements of INFANT TEMPERAMENT. (120-123)


Activity level, intensity of reaction, and attention span.


531.        Describe 3 ways parents can encourage LEARNING in infancy. (125-129)


Provide a supportive physical learning environment, provide interesting play materials, and provide supportive interactions for learning.


532.        List three ways parents can make their home SAFER for infants. (135)


Protect electrical outlets, block stairs with safety gates, and keep house plants out of reach.


533.        Describe 3 components of TOILET TRAINING READINESS. (136-137)


Bladder control, physical readiness (finger and hand coordination), instructional readiness (being socially responsive and exhibit understanding)


701.        Describe two ways parents can help their children become more PROSOCIAL. (144)


By explaining how their actions are related to the distress they cause can lead to increased compassion and empathy.  Parents who model sympathetic concern by explicitly verbalizing their own sympathetic reactions to others are helping children, particularly boys, develop sympathy.



702.        Describe 3 ways to help children cope with FEAR. (147)


Select good books about fears and read them with / to the children.  Give children accurate information about fears.  Most of all, talk with children about their fears.


703.        List 3 GOOD reasons to send a child to preschool. (155)

To meet and learn to get along with other children (socialize them), to gain mastery of basic rules and routines, and to promote self reliance and independence.



711.        Describe three ways to ENHANCE SELF-ESTEEM in a child. (166-167)


Parents that are loving, accepting, have clear standards of behavior, and allow the child to participate in making decisions have children with high self-esteem.


712.        What is the difference between NEGLECTED PEERS and REJECTED PEERS? (169)


Rejected children are actively disliked.  Their behaviors are usually negative, with high rates of aggression, conflict and distractible or disruptive behavior.  They tend to be more concerned about themselves than they are about their peers.


Neglected children are at an increased risk of becoming “rejected peers” at a later age.  These “socially invisible” children are not disliked, but unliked.  They engage in low rates of peer interaction of any kind, often play alone, and are regarded as shy.  Shyness is correlated with loneliness, depression and low self esteem in older school age children.


713.        Describe 3 ways parents can encourage a child’s CREATIVITY or COGNITIVE ABILITIES.  (170-171)


Teach children that the main limitation on what they can do is what they tell themselves they can’t do.


Teach children to take responsibility for themselves – both for their successes and for their failures.


Help children find what really excites them, remembering that it may not be what really excites you, or what you wish would really excite them.



714.        Describe three ways to deal with SCHOOL PHOBIA. (175-176)


Acknowledge the distress, but focus on cause of the symptoms instead of the symptoms.  Provide reassurance to the child that the parent will help them deal with whatever problems exist; however, a clear message that the parent expects the child to attend school is also appropriate.  Communication with the child regarding problems, brainstorming solutions, and following up with a discussion after school are all possible strategies for parents to employ.



715.        List three examples that show a child is ready for SELF-CARE. (178)


Be able to solicit help from friends, neighbors, and designated helpers when appropriate.  Be able to understand and remember verbal and written instructions.  Manipulate locks and doors so that they will not be locked in or out.




716.        List two rules/restrictions parents should have for school-age children when it comes to television  and/or video games. (182-183)


Limit the amount of TV watched.  Monitor content of the shows the children watch.


911.        List three symptoms of CLINICAL DEPRESSION in adolescents. (195)


A prolonged sense of hopelessness and frustration.  Depression is often masked with extreme restlessness and fatigue.


912.     List three signs that an adolescent is considering SUICIDE. (196)


Withdrawal from friends and activities, talk or thoughts of suicide or death, and making final arrangements (giving away prized possessions, making peace with friends, etc.).


1001.     List three reasons an adult might return to live with his/her parents. (210)


Unemployment, low salaries, high housing costs, educational needs, and divorce.


1002.     List and describe 2 ROLES FOR GRANDPARENTS. (215-216)


Family Watchdog – vigilant watchers making sure the family system as a whole is maintained.


Historian -  They can give grandchildren a sense of family history and belonging by relating stories from the past.


1003.     Describe 2 problems faced by grandparents after divorce and/or remarriage (of their grandchildren’s  parents). (218-219)


The divorce of an adult child disrupts the established links in the extended family system, thus necessitating a renegotiation of relationships.


Because the typical custody pattern in the United States usually translates into children living with their mothers, the ties between paternal grandparents and their grandchildren are often weakened.


1004.     Describe three ways that grandparents can maintain close relationships with grandchildren who live  hundreds or thousands of miles away. (219)


Telephone calls, Letters, cassette tapes & photographs.


1005.     Describe three forms of help an elderly parent may need. (224-227)


Transportation for needed or desired activities.  Housing – may require taking the parent into the child’s house.  Homemaking – help with the basic task of daily living, including meal preparation, cleaning, and laundry, shopping for needed foods, clothing and so on.


1101.     List 3 problems faced by SINGLE PARENTS. (236-241)


One parent can only model one gender role.  The single parent faces role overload and economic difficulties.



1102.     Describe 3 problems experienced by children whose parents are divorcing. (242-244, Art. 19)


They may be confused and illogically conclude that the separation is their fault.  They can deny the separation is occurring and fantasize about parental reconciliation.  When told that the parents no longer love each other, they may become fearful of losing parental love themselves or of being abandoned.



1103.     Describe three ways that divorcing parents should talk to kids about divorce. (477-Sant, M&C - 242-244)


It is important to tell children as soon as a decision is made.  When children are initially informed, both parents and all siblings should be present.  Reassure children that they are still loved by both parents.


1104.     Describe two problems faced by NONCUSTODIAL PARENTS. (245)


The custodial parent may move away and distance disrupts available time to visit.  The child’s life gets so complicated that the non-custodial parent did not want to take the time to stay involved.  Disney Land fathers don’t create real relationships.  Their visitation is just one special event after another rather than a relationship with real meaning.


1105.     Describe two problems faced by STEPPARENTS. (250-253)


Life in step-families requires continual and deliberate effort, and constant attention to the evolving relationships.   Step-parents often feel hurt, frustrated, and disappointed because they fail to instantly establish a loving relationship with their newly acquired stepchildren.


1202.     Describe three additional stresses on parents of children with disabilities. (261-265)


The diagnosis is a painful event in the life of the parent.  Securing appropriate services is an ongoing stressful event that will be present always.  Transitioning between programs will enhance the stress of securing the services.


1203.     List 2 problems parents of PREMATURE INFANTS face. (270-277)


The transition to parenthood for those experiencing preterm births is usually sudden and unexpected.  To a greater extent than in full-term births, the premature infant’s needs become central and the parents’ needs are secondary.  Because the birth of a premature baby is an ambiguous event, extended family and friends may not visit the new parents or send baby gifts.


1204.     List 2 problems faced by parents of CHILDREN WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. (274-276)


Confronted with a retarded child, many parents feel failure, lack of competence, and social isolation.  Parent-child interaction is altered when the child is retarded.  Because the retarded child is usually less responsive, parents must work harder to establish and maintain interaction.


1205.     Describe one LEARNING DISABILITY. (276-277)


Learning disabilities are academic difficulties that cannot be attributed to low IQ, physical impairments, or emotional problems.  Usually discovered during the school age years, the child has probably experienced some failures, and the parents may have been frustrated by the child’s inability to complete tasks.


1206.     Describe three issues faced by parents of GIFTED CHILDREN. (277-280)


The term “Gifted” can have both positive and negative images.  On one hand, the parent of the gifted child is envied.  On the other hand, academically gifted children are stereotyped as having few social skills and being too serious for their years. 


Some parents worry that they will not be able to meet their child’s needs, or they may feel threatened by the child’s knowledge and abilities.


1301.     What are RISK FACTORS? Give an example. (283)


Risk factors are conditions or circumstances that make healthy development difficult.  Thee include such parental characteristics as poor mental health, substance abuse, or immaturity.


1302.     Describe 3 problems faced by TEEN MOTHERS. (285-287)


The teen can suddenly be judged by adult standards rather than adolescent standards.  The teen mother may be suddenly cut off from peers and their leisure activities, but she does not comfortably fit in among older mothers.  Economic difficulties and the demands of child rearing can make the daily life of an adolescent parent stressful.


1303.     Describe 2 social or government programs for teen mothers. (289-290)


Some High Schools will provide child care for the children of teens.  This way the teen mother can complete school.  Providing comprehensive medical care for the mother and the baby insures that both of the “children” maintain their health.  Studies have shown that participants were more likely to become financially independent.


1304.     Describe two problems faced by children whose parents abuse drugs or alcohol. (291-293)


The chaotic environment that the substance abuser lives in has direct negative effect on the parent-child relationship.  Because characteristics associated with problem drinking and substance abuse include low self-esteem, emotional immaturity, depression, and social isolation the context in which addicted adults engage in child rearing is often plagued by unemployment and unstable home environments.


1305.     Describe 2 adaptations used by parents of children with disabilities. (294-299)


Many people with disabilities have learned, prior to parenthood, that they must rely on others to help them negotiate daily life.  A blind mother may need to secure a bell to her wandering toddler.  A deaf father may need to rely on monitors that use vibration and light to signal crying of an infant.


1306.     Describe three causes of CHILD MALTREATMENT. (300-304)


Physical abuse is the most often reported type of child maltreatment.  (shaking, shoving, beating, or burning).  The most prevalent type of maltreatment is neglect.  Failing to provide the child with proper food, clothing, medical care or education constitutes neglect.   Emotional maltreatment includes actively ridiculing the child or passively ignoring the child’s needs for emotional support.


1307.     List 4 components of RETHINK. (304)




T-think about the same situation in a different way

H-hear what the other person is saying

I-integrate love and respect with an honest expression of the anger

N-notice what their bodies feel like when they get angry

K-keep attention on the present problem


1401.     What is ROLE OVERLOAD? (310)


Working parents often take on the responsibilities of many different roles and, as a result, experience increased stress.  The roles that parents play during the day often spill over into each other.  So the bad day at work can mean an irritable parent at the dinner table.  A sick child at night can equate into mistakes at work the next day.


1402.     Describe 3 ways employers can help parents. (318)


Flexible work schedules and places.  Benefit programs.  Childcare services.  Information and referral services.


1403.     Describe three types of CHILDCARE. (319-321)


In-home care:  this is where the child stays in their own home and an in-home provider is used. 


Family Daycare: this is where the child is left at someone else’s home.  It is the most flexible and is believed to offer the best opportunity for a nurturing environment.


Center-Based Care: Daycare centers that offer childcare in a school like setting.  Centers may be community based, nonprofit enterprises or they may be national franchises that operate for profit.


1404.     Give three measures of quality DAYCARE. (321-325)


Caregiver training, a low adult to child ratio, and small group size have been identified as important characteristics of child care settings.


1405.   Give three options of care for SICK CHILDREN. (322)


A friend, neighbor or relative who does not work outside of the home.  Some daycare centers offer isolation rooms staffed by nurses.  With dual career families, the parents can alternate time off to stay with the child.



109.        What is GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY? (9)


The term that James Mark Baldwin gave to the study of how children’s knowledge changes over the course of their development. (at that time genetic was a synonym for “developmental” and the term epistemology meant “the nature or study of knowledge”)


110.        List three possible careers n child development. (20-21)


Pre-School / Kindergarten teacher

Guidance Counselor



111.        What is a HYPOTHESIS? (29)


Hypotheses are specific testable assumptions and predictions that are derived from theories.


112.        What is a CASE STUDY? (53)


A case study is an in-depth look at an individual.


113.        What is the difference between a CROSS-SECTIONAL study and a LONGITUDINAL study? (55)


A Cross-sectional study involves studying people all at one time, and a Longitudinal study involves studying the same individuals over a period of time, usually several years or more.


114.        List and describe 3 theories of child development. (31-50)


Psychoanalytic theories describe development as primarily unconscious and is heavily colored by emotion. Psychoanalytic theorists believe that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that to truly understand development, we have to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind.


Erickson’s theory:  There are eight psychosocial stages of development that unfold as we go through our lifespan.  They are Trust –vs.- mistrust (first year); Autonomy –vs.- shame and doubt (ages 1-3); Initiative –vs.- guilt (ages 3-5); Industry –vs.- inferiority (6 – puberty); Identity –vs.- identity confusion (ages 10-20); Intimacy –vs.- isolation (ages 20’s & 30’s); Generativity –vs.- stagnation (40’s & 50’s); Integrity –vs.- despair (60’s and beyond)


Piaget’s theory states that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.  Sensorimotor Stage (Birth – 2 years); Preoperational Stage (2-7 years); Concrete Operational Stage (7-11): Formal Operational Stage (11 and beyond).



312.        What is ETHNOCENTRISM? (555)


The tendency to favor one’s own group over other groups.


313.        What is a RITE OF PASSAGE? (556)


Ceremonies or rituals that mark an individual’s transition from one status to another, especially into adulthood.


314.        What is meant by the term “FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY?” (561)


This refers to the fact that far more women than men live in poverty.


315.     Describe 3 problems in children that are associated with watching too much television. (568-576)


Television is said to train children to become passive learners, rarely, if ever, does television require active responses from the observers.


Long-term exposure to television violence was significantly related to the likelihood of aggression in boys.  Boys that watched the most aggression on the television were the most likely to commit a violent crime.


Television is negatively related to children’s creativity.  Because television is primarily a visual modality, verbal skills – especially expressive language – are enhanced more by aural or print exposure.


315.        List and describe 3 of KOHLBERG’S stages of moral development. (422-423)


Level 1: At this level, the individual shows no internalization of moral values – moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments


Level 2: At this level, internalization is intermediate.  Individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standards of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society.


Level 3: At this level, morality is completely internalized and is not based on others’ standards.  The individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code.



317.     What is the main distinction in the SOCIAL COGNITION THEORY OF MORALITY? (432)


The social cognitive theory of morality emphasizes a distinction between a child’s moral competence (the ability to perform moral behaviors) and the moral performance (performing those behaviors in specific situations)


318.        What is LOVE WITHDRAWAL? What is POWER ASSERTION? (437-438)


Love withdrawal is a discipline technique in which a parent withholds attention or love from the child, as when the parent refuses to talk to the child or states a dislike for the child.


Power Assertion is a discipline technique in which a parent attempts to gain control over the child or the child’s resources.  Examples include spanking, threatening, or removing privileges.


319.        What is the difference between INDEX offenses and STATUS offences? (443)


Index offenses are criminal acts, whether they are committed by juveniles or adults.  Status offenses, such as running away, truancy, underage drinking, sexual promiscuity, and uncontrollability are less serious acts.  They are performed by youth under a specific age, which classifies them as juvenile offenses.


320.        What is CONDUCT DISORDER? Please include several symptoms. (443)


Conduct disorder is the psychiatric diagnostic category used when multiple behaviors occur over a 6-month period.  These behaviors include truancy, running away, fire setting, cruelty to animals, breaking and entering, excessive fighting, and others.  When three or more of these behaviors co-occur before the age of 15 and the child or adolescent is considered unmanageable or out of control, the clinical diagnosis is conduct disorder.


321.        Describe 3 ways to reduce youth violence. (446)


Recommit to raising children safely and effectively.


Make prevention a reality.


Give more support to schools, which are struggling to educate a population that includes many at-risk children.


511.        What is a BLASTOCYST? (98)


The inner layer of cells that develops during the germinal period.  These cells later develop into the embryo.


512.        What is ANOXIA? (113)


The insufficient availability of oxygen to the fetus or newborn


513.        What is a CESARIAN DELIVERY? (115)


A childbirth method in which the baby is removed from the mother’s uterus through an incision made in her abdomen.  This also is sometimes referred to as cesarean section.


514.        What is the difference between a PRETERM infant and a LOW BIRTHWEIGHT infant? (116)


A preterm infant is one who is born prior to 38 weeks after conception.  A low birth weight infant is born after a regular gestation period of 38 to 42 weeks but weighs less than 5 1/2 pounds.  Both preterm and low birth weight infants are considered at risk.


515.        List three problems associated with low birthweight. (116-117)


Low birth weight children are more likely than normal-birth weight children to have a learning disability, attention deficit disorder, or breathing problems such as asthma.


517.     List and describe 2 measures of health or responsiveness of infants. (119)


The APGAR SCALE is widely used to assess the health of newborns at 1 and 5 minutes after birth.  The Apgar scale evaluates infants’ heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.


Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale is performed within 24 to 36 hours after birth to evaluate the newborn’s neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people.


518.        What is the CEPHALOCAUDAL pattern? (130)


The cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the greatest growth always occurs at the top – the head – when physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working its way down from top to bottom.


519.        What is SIDS? (137)


Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: a condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing, usually during the night, and suddenly dies without apparent cause.


520.        List and describe 3 NEONATAL REFLEXES. (142-143)


Sucking reflex – occurs when the infant automatically sucks an object placed in their mouth.


Moro reflex - is a startle response that occurs in response to a sudden intense noise or movement.


Grasping reflex – occurs when something touches the infant’s palms.


521.        List and describe one theory of INFANT PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT. (149)


The constructivist view states that perception is a cognitive construction based on sensory input plus information retried from memory.  In this view, perception is a representation of the world that builds up as the infant constructs an image of its experiences.


The ecological view states that the perception has functional purposes of bringing the organism in contact with the environment and of increasing adaptation.


704.        What is ORAL REHYDRATION THERAPY? (175)


This treatment encompasses a range of techniques designed to prevent dehydration during episodes of diarrhea by giving the child fluids by mouth.


List and describe a LANGUAGE RULE SYSTEM. (311-313)


Phonology refers to a language’s sound system.  Phonological rules ensure that certain sounds sequences occur and other do not.


Morphology refers to word formation.  A morpheme is a unit of sound that conveys a specific meaning Every word in the English language is make up of one or more morphemes.


Syntax involves the ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.


Semantics refer to the meaning of words and sentences.  Every word has a set of semantic features.  Girl and Woman, for example, share many of the semantic features as the word female.


Pragmatics is the use of appropriate conversation and knowledge underlying the use of language in context.



705.        What is the LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (LAD)? (314)


Linguist Noam Chomsky believes humans are biologically pre-wired to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way.  He said that children are born into the world with a language acquisition device, a biological endowment that enables the child to detect certain language categories, such as phonology, syntax, and semantics.  The LAD is a theoretical construct that flows from evidence about the biological basis of language.



706.        What does the term CRITICAL PERIOD mean in language development? (315)


Critical period refers to a period in which there is a learning readiness for language.  Beyond this period, learning is difficult or impossible.


708.     Describe one finding about BILINGUAL EDUCATION. (330-332)


Bilingualism does not interfere with performance in either language.

Bilingualism has a positive effect on children’s cognitive development.

Bilingual children do better than monolingual children on tests of intelligence.


717.        Describe two ways that parent-child relationships influence peer relationships. (489)


A number of theorists and researchers argue that parent-child relationships serve as emotional bases for exploring and enjoying peer relations.  Some boys were highly aggressive (bullies) and other boys were the recipients of aggression (whipping boys) throughout their preschool years.  The bullies and the whipping boys had distinctive relationship histories.  The bullies’ parents frequently rejected them, were authoritarian, and were permissive about their sons’ aggression, and the bullies’ families were characterized by discord.  By contrast, the whipping boys’ parents were anxious and overprotective, taking special care to have their sons avoid aggression.  The well adjusted boys in the study were much less likely to be involved in aggressive peer interchanges than were the bullies and the whipping boys.


718.        Describe two functions of FRIENDSHIP. (501)


Companionship – a familiar partner, someone who is willing to spend time with them.


Stimulation –provides for interesting information, excitement, and amusement.


Physical support – provides resources and assistance


Ego Support – provides for the expectation of support, encouragement and feedback that helps children to maintain an impression of themselves as competent, attractive, and worthwhile individuals.


Social comparison – provides information about where children stand vis-ą-vis others and whether children are doing okay.


Intimacy / affection – provides children with a warm, close, trusting relationship with another individual, a relationship that involves self-discourse.


719.        What is the difference between a CLIQUE and a CROWD? (506)


The crowd is the largest and least personal of adolescent groups.  Members of the crowd meet because of their mutual interest in activities, not because they are mutually attracted to each other.  Cliques are smaller, involve greater intimacy among members, and have more group cohesion than crowds.


720.        Describe 3 functions of DATING. (509)


Recreation – Adolescents who date seem to have fun and see dating as a source of enjoyment and recreation.


Status achievement – part of the social comparison process in adolescence involves evaluating the status of the people one dates: are they the best-looking, the most popular, and so forth.


Socialization process – It helps the adolescent to learn how to get along with others and assists in learning manners and sociable behavior.


Learning intimacy – Allows for a meaningful relationship with a person of the opposite sex.


Sexuality - Context for sexual experimentation and exploration.


Companionship through interaction and shared activities in an opposite-sex relationship.


Mate sorting and selection.


721.        List and describe 2 approaches to student learning (or types of programs). (518-524)


Child-Centered kindergarten – education involves the whole child and includes concern  for the child’s physical, cognitive, and social development.


The Montessori approach is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.  The are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire.  The teacher acts as a facilitator rather than a director of learning.


Project Head Start is a compensatory education program designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for success in school.


901.        Describe three signs of PUBERTY. (179-182)


In girls, first menstruation, breast, uterine and skeletal (growth) development.


In boys, development of the genitals, an increase in height, and a change in voice.


In both the appearance of pubic hair.


902.        Describe one social problem for LATE-MATURING BOYS. Describe one social problem for EARLY-MATURING GIRLS. (182-183)


Early maturing boys perceived themselves more positively and had more successful peer relations than did their late-maturing counterparts.


Early maturing girls experience more problems in school, but also more independence and popularity with boys.  Late maturing girls tend to be more slender by the 10th grade than their early maturing counterparts.  This difference causes the early maturing girls to be less satisfied with their body shape than the late-maturing girls.


903.        List two drawbacks of ADOLESCENT SEXUAL ACTIVITY. (185-187)


Sexually transmitted diseases – most adolescents do not consider themselves capable of contracting diseases.  Therefore, they tend to disregard the warnings because “that could not happen to them.”


Pregnancy – most adolescents do not know enough about pregnancy and associated subjects.  Our culture is “afraid” to discuss such “private” matters in public. Therefore, they tend to disregard the warnings because “that could not happen to them.”


904.        Describe one GENDER DIFFERENCE in adolescent SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR. (191)


Males are about three times as likely to commit suicide as females.  This may be because of their choice of more active methods for attempting suicide.  Estimates indicate that for every successful suicide in the general population, 6 to 10 attempts are made.  For adolescents, the figure is as high as 50 attempts for every life taken.


905.        List and describe one EATING DISORDER of adolescence. (192) (M&C p.201)


Anorexia nervosa – an eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.  Eventually anorexia nervosa can lead to death.


Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern.  The bulimic goes on an eating binge and then purges by inducing vomiting or using a laxative.


906.        List and describe two IDENTITY CHANGES in adolescence. (375-378)


Adolescents begin to think about themselves in abstract and idealistic ways (I’m nice, intelligent, thoughtful) rather than simply factual (I have black hair, light skin, freckles)


Differentiated – Adolescents are more likely than children to understand that one possesses different selves, depending on one’s role or particular context.


The Fluctuating Self – The adolescent’s self continues to be characterized by instability until the adolescent constructs a more unified theory of self, usually not until late adolescence or even adult hood.


Contradictions within the Self – Adolescents develop the cognitive ability to detect inconsistencies within themselves as they strive to construct a general theory of the self or of their personality.


Real and Ideal (True and False Selves) – The adolescent begins to construct ideal selves in addition to actual ones.  The capacity to recognize a discrepancy between real and ideal selves represent a cognitive advance; however, some theorists believe that if there is too much discrepancy between the real and idea, it is a sign of maladjustment.


Social Comparison – Adolescents are more likely than children to use social comparison to evaluate themselves.


Self-conscious – Adolescents are more likely than children to be self- conscious about and preoccupied with self-understanding.  This leads to more introspective understanding, and usually is combined with feedback from peers to validate and evaluate the emerging self.


907.        List and describe two of Marcia’s IDENTITY STATUSES. (385-386)


Crisis – a period of identity development during which the adolescent is exploring meaningful alternatives.


Commitment – a part of identity development in which adolescents show a personal investment in what they are going to do.


Identity diffusion – the state adolescents are in when they have not yet experienced a crisis (not explored a meaningful alternative) or made a commitment.


Identity foreclosure – a state adolescents are in when they have made a commitment but have not experienced a crisis.


Identity moratorium – a  state of adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitment either are absent or are only vaguely defined.


Identity achievement – when an adolescent has undergone a crisis and has made a commitment.


Identity Status

Position on Occupation and Ideology

Identity moratorium

Identity foreclosure

Identity diffusion

Identity achievement













908.        Describe three influences on GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT. (396-405)


Biological Influences


Heredity and hormones – Estrogens influence the development of female physical sex characteristics and help regulate the menstrual cycle. Androgens promote the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics.  Androgens influence sexual motivation in both sexes. Androgens are produced by the adrenal glands in males and females, and by the testes in males.


Social Influences


Gender hierarchy and sexual division of labor are important causes of sex-differentiated behavior.  As women adapted to roles with less power and less status in society, they showed more cooperative, less dominant profiles than men.


Cognitive Influences


Children’s gender typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender.  Once they consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, children often organize their world on the basis of gender.


909.        What is the difference between RAPPORT talk and REPORT talk? (407)


Rapport talk is the language of conversation and a way of establishing connection and negotiating relationships.  Report talk is talk that gives information.


910.        What is ANDROGYNY? (409)


The presence of desirable masculine and feminine characteristics in the same person.


1006.     What is SCAFFOLDING? (456)


Refers to parental behavior that serves to support children’s efforts, allowing them to be more skillful than they would be if they relied only on their own abilities.


1007.     List and describe three forms of CHILD MALTREATMENT. (465)


Physical and sexual abuse; Fostering of delinquency; Lack of Supervision; Medical, educational, and nutritional neglect; Drug or alcohol abuse.


Physical abuse is the most often reported type of child maltreatment.  (shaking, shoving, beating, or burning).  The most prevalent type of maltreatment is neglect.  Failing to provide the child with proper food, clothing, medical care or education constitutes neglect.   Emotional maltreatment includes actively ridiculing the child or passively ignoring the child’s needs for emotional support.


1008.     Describe two problems caused by child maltreatment. (467)


Among the developmental consequences of child maltreatment are poor emotion regulation, attachment problems, problems in peer relations, difficulty in adapting to school, and other psychological problems.


1009.     Describe two differences between FIRST-BORN and LATER-BORN children. (468-469)


Firstborn children are more adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, anxious, and self-controlled than their siblings.  Parents give more attention to firstborns and this is related to firstborn’s nurturant behavior.  Parental demands and high standards established for firstborns result in these children’s excelling in academic and professional endeavors.


1010.     Describe two causes of CONFLICT between adolescents and their parents. (471)


The biological changes of puberty, cognitive changes involving increased idealism and logical reasoning, social changes focused on independence and identity, maturational changes in parents, and expectations that are violated by parents and adolescents.


1011.     Describe two problems faced by WORKING PARENTS. (474-475)


A common experience of working mothers (and working fathers) is feeling guilty about being away from their children.  With working parents, role overload is probable in that the additional requirements of children detract from the time the parent can invest in other activities (whether personal or professional)


1012.     Describe two problems faced by children in STEPFAMILIES. (478-479 - (art.19))


Boundary ambiguity – the uncertainty in stepfamilies about who is in or out of the family and who is performing or responsible for certain tasks in the family system.


In longer established stepfamilies, a distant, disengaged parenting style predominates for step fathers, although conflict can remain high between stepfather and children.  Stepmothers have a more difficult time integrating themselves into stepfamilies than to stepfathers.


1308.     Why do some ethnic/cultural groups get lower average scores on IQ tests? (297-298)


Many of the early intelligence tests were culturally biased, favoring people who were from urban rather than rural environments, middle-SES rather than low-SES, and White rather than African American.  For example, a question on an early test asked what should be done if you find a 3-year-old child in the street. The “correct” answer was “call the police”, but children from inner-city families who perceive the police as adversaries are unlikely to choose this answer.


1309.     List two symptoms of MENTAL RETARDATION. (300)


Mental retardation is a condition of limited mental ability in which the individual has low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test, has difficulty adapting to everyday life, and has an onset of these characteristics during the so-called developmental period – by age 18.


1310.     Describe three ways parents can encourage CREATIVITY in their children. (303-304)


Have children engage in brainstorming.  Provide children with environments that stimulate creativity.  Don’t over control the child. Encourage internal motivation.  Foster flexible and playful thinking.


1311.     What is the TOP DOG PHENOMENON? (528)


When students make the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school they experience the top-dog phenomenon, the circumstance of moving from the top position (in elementary school, being the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students in the school) to the lowest position (in middle or junior high school, being the youngest, smallest, and least powerful students in the school.)


1312.     Describe 3 ways to improve schools for adolescents. (529)


Develop smaller communities or houses to lessen the impersonal nature of large middle schools


Lower student-to-counselor ratios from several hundred-to-1 to 10-to-1.


Develop curricula that produce students who are literate, understand the sciences, and have a sense of health, ethics and citizenship


Have teachers team teach in more flexibly designed curriculum blocks that integrate several disciplines, instead of presenting students with disconnected, rigidly separated 50 minute segments


Boost students’ health and fitness with more in-school programs and help students who need public health care to get it.


1314.     Describe 2 reasons adolescents drop out of high school. (530-531)


Almost 50% of the dropouts cited school-related reasons for leaving school.  Not liking school, or being expelled or suspended


20% of the dropouts cited economic reasons for leaving school. 


One third of the female students dropped out for personal reasons such as pregnancy or marriage.


1315.     List 3 components of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). (538-539)


The IDEA spells out broad mandates for services to all children with disabilities.  These include evaluation and eligibility determination, appropriate education and the individualized education plan (IEP), and the least restrictive environment (LER).


1316.     What is SELF-EFFICACY? (544-545)


Self-efficacy is the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes.





105.        Article 1 - Give one example of a genetic behavior (human or animal). Give one example of the learned behavior.


Genetic behavior can also be considered instinct.  This would equate to an animal knowing how to care for an offspring even though they have never had one before.  Learned behavior is a bit different in that the animal is not born knowing how to perform the task.  For instance when considering bears, they are born knowing how to eat, but they learn to dig into trash dumpsters for easy food.


106.        Describe three things a FETUS can do (before birth).


Scratch, suck, sleep, wake, see, & hear.


107.        Article 23 - Describe two effects of “FATHER LOVE.”


Father-child conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents.  And father-child cohesion was positively associated with the absence of depressive symptoms in adolescents.


Father-child conflict was positively associated with behavioral problems in adolescents.  And father-child cohesion was positively associated with the absence of behavioral problems in adolescents.


115.        Article 20 - List and describe 3 discipline options beyond “timeout.”


Distraction or simply ignoring the behavior.   A heart to heart talk regarding the behavior and the necessity to cease and desist.  The parental stare.  (Just looking at the child in a non-approving way can modify their behavior.)


301.        Article 5 - briefly describe one GENDER DIFFERENCE due to EVOLUTION.


Considering the pincers of the male and female beetles.  The male’s pincers are considerably larger because of the male-on-male aggression that plays part in the selection of mates and procreation of the species.


302.        Article 16 - Describe 2 reasons children choose SAME-GENDER PLAYMATES.


Direct Socialization - direct pressure of adults to segregate by gender.


Toy preference – when placed in a day care environment, children gravitate to specific types of toys.  Because of socialization and or biological differences, boys and girls prefer different toys. In this environment, the segregation occurs.


303.        Article 16 - Describe two ways to reduce GENDER SEGREGATION.


Reward mixed gender  play. (e.g. positive attention to children of different genders playing together)


Try to encourage similar play styles by treating boys and girls the same.


Most external attempts to “force” de-segregation are met with very limited success.


511.        Article 12 Describe two of the findings of HARLOW’S MONKEY STUDIES.


Monkeys reared in total isolation developed aberrant feeding, mating, parenting, and socializing behaviors. 


Absent of a mother, the monkeys became inseparable from the cloth-and-wire surrogates in their cages.


522.        Article 11 How do infants develop a fear of heights?


Research seems to suggest that as the child develops locomotion, so the wariness of heights develops in conjunction with the actual experience of self-mobilization.


707.        Article 4 What is PARENTESE (Motherese)? (317)


Rhythmic, high-pitched speaking style with an unusually melodious tone. A method of conversing with an infant.  Usually associated with exaggerated emphasis on words and sounds.  (baby talk)


708.        Article 6 What is the APPEARANCE vs. REALITY DISTINCTION?   Give an example of a task used to assess  this.


Having the ability to understand that (what is seen) may not be (what is actual.)  For instance, when babies see a person with a dog mask, the perceive the person as a dog; however, when children reach the age of 3 – 4 years old, they can distinguish that the person is only wearing a dog mask.


Another example is with three-year olds when presented with a glass of milk in plain view the children knew it as milk; however when an orange light filter was used (with the child being present to know the filter was being used) the children now insisted that the liquid was orange juice and not milk.


717.        Article 10 What is a DISENGAGED parent?


A parent who is authoritarian in their interactions with their children, who fail to provide guidance or structure in the family setting, and who fail to provide the emotional support needed when the child encounters problems.


1106.     Article 19  Describe three problems faced by children in remarriages.


Children from divorced and remarried families are more likely to have academic problems, exhibit externalizing behaviors and internalizing disorders, to be less socially responsible,  and competent and to have lower self esteem.


1201. Article 32 Describe three signs of depression in children.


Difficulty maintaining relationships – may become antisocial, reject friends or refuse to take part in school and family events.


Reduced physical activity – may suffer from lethargy or appear to drag self around.


Morbid or suicidal thoughts – may seek out games, music, art or books with death-related themes.


Low self-esteem – may feel that they are worthless and that their peers, teachers and family disapprove of them.



Self-destructive behavior – May harm their body by, for example, biting fingernails to the point of bleeding.


Problems at school – grades may drop or classroom troublemaking rise.


Changes in sleep patterns – may either have restless nights or sleep away the day.


1317.     Article 8 What is the MISINFORMATION EFFECT?


When people who witness an event and are later exposed to new and misleading information about it, their recollections often become distorted.


1318.     Article 28 Describe three factors that increase the chances that a child will become VIOLENT. (art 28)


Having any of the following risk factors doubles a boy’s chance of becoming a murderer. Coming from a family with a history of criminal violence, being abused, belonging to a gang, and abusing drugs or alcohol.


Having any of these risk factors, in addition to the above, triples the risk of becoming a killer.  Using a weapon, having been arrested, having a neurological problem that impairs thinking or feeling, or having had problems at school.


1319.     Article 29 Describe 2 problems associated with growing up in poverty.


The following conditions are associated with lower socio-economic status (poverty). Decreased physical health because of less access to proper medical care, cognitive development impairment or delays, increased grade repetition, increased emotional or behavior problems, higher teen pregnancy, experience of hunger, higher occurrence of abuse by parents or guardians, and more likely to commit violent crimes.



1320.     Article 31 Describe 3 ways to prevent child maltreatment and/or help children who have been maltreated.


Provide alternative caregivers for the children, provide social support for emotional and physical rehabilitation, provide formal and informal support to the parents that abuse children, provide intervention programs for child victims.


1405.     Article 21 Describe 2 different forms of CHILD CARE.


Family daycare providers care for children in their own homes.  The providers’ own children are often included in the mix of children who come before and after school. 


Childcare centers provide group care for children from infancy to school age in age-segregated groups with smaller ratios of children at younger ages to adults.  The most notable difference between centers and family style is the presence of a learning curriculum in the center version.


1406.     Describe one research finding on the long-term effects of childcare or daycare.


In a four year follow-up study of 141 children, Deater-Decker, Pinkerton and Scarr reported no longer-term effects of differences in quality of preschool child care on these school-age children’s social, emotional, or behavioral adjustment.


1407.     Article 22 List one finding about kids whose parents work outside the home.


When asked “If you were granted one wish to change the way that your mother’s or your father’s work affects your life, what would that wish be?”  The largest portion of children (23%) says that they want their mothers and thief fathers to make more money.  It is suspected that money is seen as stress-reducer, given the children’s other answers.


1408.     Article 27 Describe three problems that adolescents may encounter if unsupervised in the afternoons.


Studies indicate that children that are unsupervised after school have higher propensity of illegal drug use, increased risk of teen pregnancy and higher incident of sexually transmitted diseases, increased occurrence of “first-time” criminals.  Furthermore the research confirms common sense.  According to one University of Southern California study, eighth graders looking after themselves were more likely to smoke, drink, and use marijuana than those who have some supervision after school.




304.        Describe three ways to “raise a nonracist child.”


Make acquaintances across color lines: Show you children that people are people no matter what their color or ethnic background is.


 Don’t pretend that discrimination does not exist: teach your children how to recognize it and how not to perpetuate it.


Insist on respect: Require your child (and yourself) to show outward respect for all people regardless of color or ethnic background.  Let people’s actions determine your respect for them, not their color.